Nutritional Care of Patients with HIV Infection: Some Evidence Based Guidelines

Iftikhar Alam1,2*, Ali Almajwal2
1Clinical Nutrition Program, Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 2 Department of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author Email Address: [email protected]

Background: Nutritional care has been recognized one of the most effective strategies in the management of HIV infection as demonstrated by large research data on the topic. However, generally the clinicians feel a scarcity of information on therapeutic nutrition for HIV, particularly in the context of clinical settings. The main objective of this paper is to review data on the nutritional care of HIV patients. It is expected that this study will comprehend on the nutritional status assessment and efficacy of nutritional management in HIV infection. Sources of Data/Study selection: Data from health statistics, survey reports and a number of published research studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as well as descriptive), published between 1990-2018 on the topic were included. The data searches strategies mainly concentrated on human studies and excluded those with incomplete or irrelevant conclusions. Data Extraction: PubMed, Medline, Science Direct, Research GATE are the electronic databases and abstracting systems that were used for literature. Results: The literature review suggests that nutritional status assessment should be observed to know the degree of nutrient deficiencies. Anthropometrics are the primary easy-to-do tools of nutritional status assessment. Weight history should be monitored and wasting must be identified based on recent weight loss. Evidence suggests 5-10% loss in weigh in four months is likely to increase the relative death rate and occurrence of opportunistic infections two times more. Based on anthropometrics, requirements for energy, protein, fluid, minerals and vitamins should be established using various algorithmic expressions and reference data. If needed, enteral and parenteral nutrition may be initiated if patient is unable to achieve his/her nutritional requirements orally.    

Keywords: HIV Infection, Nutrient Requirements, Nutritional Status Assessment.

Citation: Alam I, Almajwal A. Nutritional Care of Patients with HIV Infection: Some Evidence Based Guidelines. Canad J Clin Nutr 2018; 6 (2): 132-156.