Coffee Consumption and Chronic Diseases: Nutrigenomics Perspectives

Leila Sadeghi1*, Claudia Relats Garcia2, Eveline Zbären1, Giulia Simona Tedde1, HelenaJenzer1, 3
1Bern University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Professions, applied R&D in Nutrition & Dietetics, Murtenstrasse 10, CH-3008 Bern, Switzerland. 2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028, Barcelona, Spain. 3Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich, Lenggstrasse 31, 8032 Zürich, Switzerland
* Corresponding Author: Prof. Dr. Leila Sadeghi, E-Mail: [email protected]

Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide and its trade is described as the second largest export in the world. Studies have suggested that female coffee drinkers are more predisposed to the health-promoting effect than male coffee drinkers, probably due to a lower activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) in women which leads to a slower caffeine metabolism. There is growing evidence that genetic factors contribute to habitual coffee consumption, which seems to reduce the risk for overall mortality. The largest risk reduction is often observed with a moderate consumption of three to five cups of coffee per day. The different genotypes for the CYP1A2 gene seem to modify for example the association between coffee intake and the risk for some cardiovascular disease and to influence the long-term effects of coffee consumption as well as the acute response to coffee intake for example on blood pressure. Based on nutrigenomics perspectives it is clear that coffee does not affect all people equally. It seems that slow metabolizers of the CYP1A2 gene may benefit from reducing caffeine intake. The recommendations for safe coffee consumption should be individually adapted. There is a need for more evidence as far as the dose of coffee and the effect on the body while considering the genetic differences of each individual. The present review aims at providing an overview of the actual state of research concerning the association between coffee, nutrigenomics and the development of various chronic diseases.

Keywords: Coffee, Chronic Diseases, CYP1A2, Nutrigenomics
Citation: Sadeghi L, Garcia CR, Zbären E, Tedde GS, Jenzer H. Coffee Consumption and Chronic Diseases: Nutrigenomics Perspectives. Canad J Clin Nutr 2019; 7 (1): 114-140.