Influence of Environmental, Socioeconomic, and Lifestyle Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk: An Updated Comparative Review

Yousef M. Waly*, Ahmed Al-Hindawi, Mohamed Shelig, Muhammed Hussain Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain

*Correspondence Email Address: [email protected]


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease developing during the later stages of life, has been thoroughly explored throughout the course of the past 20 years. However, the impact of socioeconomic and environmental risk factors has been given less attention. Socioeconomic risk factors include income, education, employment, and community safety. Such risk factors are said to influence the body’s regular metabolic functioning and influence the pathogenesis leading to T2DM. Though socioeconomic risk factors in relation to the risk of T2DM are difficult to assess and evaluate, it is important to explore and potentially identify relationships between them. Similarly, environmental and lifestyle risk factors, including pollution, food availability, physical fitness, and dietary habits, are all risk factors thought to similarly influence metabolic function as well as the pathogenesis of T2DM. Ideally, such risk factors are to be explored in detail to gauge potential future preventative measures and help establish awareness aimed at lowering the risk of T2DM. This comparative review has sought to summarize the findings on the degree of influence of socioeconomic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors from published papers over the past 7 years (2015-2022) in hopes of developing a more robust understanding of such relationships for future implementation in studies.

Keywords: Environmental Risk Factors, Lifestyle Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Risk
Factors, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Citation: Yousef M. Waly, Ahmed Al-Hindawi, Mohamed Shelig, Muhammed Hussain.
Influence of Environmental, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes
Mellitus Risk: An Updated Comparative Review. Canadian Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
2023; 11 (1): 93-111.