Assessing Water and Fluid Intakes and Hydration Status of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study from Bahrain

Haitham Ali Jahrami1,2, Mo’ez Al-Islam Ezzat Faris3*, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh4, Zahraa Qassim Saif 5, Laila Habib Hammad6
1Rehabilitation Services, Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain. 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.3Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Health Sciences/Research Institute of Medical and Health Sciences (RIMHS), University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.4College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.5Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.6Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
*Corresponding Author E-mail address: mfaris@sharjah.ac.ae & moezfaris@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Background: Very little information is known about fluids intakes and hydration status of schizophrenia patients. Objective: The current research was designed to assess total water intake from drinking water, liquid and solid foods among adult patients with schizophrenia, and to examine their compliance with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) daily recommendations for water adequate intake. Subjects & Methods: A sample of 120 cases was recruited from the Psychiatric Hospital, Bahrain and age- sex- matched with 120 controls. Controls were recruited from primary health centers, and were free from serious mental illnesses. Total water intake from water, liquid foods and solid foods was measured using semi-quantitative Food frequency questionnaire. Hydration status of the participants was also measured using validated questionnaire. Results: Cases and controls had both a mean of 10 drinking acts of standard units (240 ml/unit). Average consumption was found to be 2408±858 ml/day and 2504±814 ml/day for cases and controls, respectively. Men consumed 2647±902 ml/day and 2716±876 ml/day, while women consumed 2115±702 and 2244±666 for cases and controls, respectively. Altogether, 75% (95% CI 69%-80%) of the participants met the recommended AI of water. Estimated water and fluids consumption was congruent with the recommendations of EFSA for most participants. Controls reported more consumption of water compared to cases. Conclusion: These findings suggest that surveying mentally ill people on dietary recommendation allows establishing whether the recommendations are being met or not and, accordingly, designing and implementing the suitable intervention programs.

Keywords: Fluid intake, Hydration, Schizophrenia, Water

Citation: Jahrami HA, Faris MAIE, Hamadeh RR, Saif ZQ, Hammad LH. Assessing Water and Fluid Intakes and Hydration Status of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study from Bahrain. Canad J Clin Nutr 2018; 6 (1): 123-139.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14206/canad.j.clin.nutr.2018.01.08

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